There are several reasons why crediting sources is necessary in academic writing. First, it shows the reader that the author has researched the background of the problem and is able to discuss previous research. Second, it gives credit to past researchers whose research has added to the body of knowledge on the topic.
Work should be cited if the work, ideas, theories, or research have influenced the current author's work. This also shows the current author has read the work.
|1. Author||2. Title of Source||3. Title of Container|
|4. Contributors||5. Version||6. Number|
|7. Publisher||8. Publication Date||9. Location|
Not all elements will necessarily be present in each citation you create. Also, it is possible that elements 3 through 9 might appear more than once. Each source will be slightly different, but the general format for each will resemble the examples in the template below.
Example 1: Electronic Article from a Database
Author, First and Second Author. Title of Article. Title of the Journal in Italics, volume, issue, publication date, page numbers. database name, doi:(or https://doi.org/xxx.xxx). Optional access date.
Rauer, Amy, and Brenda Volling.“More Than One Way to be Happy: A Typology of Marital Happiness.” Family Process, vol.52, no.3, 2013, pp. 519-534. Academic Search Complete, doi:10.1111/famp.12028. Accessed 13 Apr. 2018.
Example 2: Electronic Article without DOI
Author, First. Title of Article. Title of the Journal in Italics, volume, issue, publication date, page numbers, database name, article's stable URL. Optional Access date.
Pollard, Stephen.“Mathematics and the Good Life.” Philosophia Mathematica, vol. 21, no. 1, Feb. 2013, pp. 93-109, Academic Search Complete, http://db26.lnccwb.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=85817538&site=ehost-live. Accessed 6 Aug. 2018.
Author, First. Title of Article. Title of the Journal in Italics, volume, issue, publication date, page numbers.
Verschoor, Curtis C. "How Colleges Hide Investments to Avoid Taxes: Should Universities Use Tax Haven Corporations?" Strategic Finance, vol. 99, no. 9. Mar. 2018, pp. 21-22.
Example 1: Book by a single author
Author, First.Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date.
Brettell, Caroline. Anthropological Conversations: Talking Culture Across Disciplines. Rowman & Littlefield, 2015.
Example 2: Book by two authors
Author, First and Second Author.Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date
Berger, Kathleen S. and Ross A. Thompson. The Developing Person Through Childhood. Worth Publishers, 2003.
Example 3: Books with three or more authors
Author, First, et. al. (Year). Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date
Verdier, Thierry, et al. The Organization of Firms in a Global Economy. Harvard UP, 2008.
Example 4: Electronic book (eBook) from a library database
Author, First.Title of Book. Database name, Publisher, Publication Date
Arthur, Charles. Digital Wars: Apple, Google, Microsoft and the Battle for the Internet. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost),
Kogan Page, 2012.
Any time you quote or paraphrase from a source within the text of your project, you must give credit to the source by using an in-text citation.
The general format is to include the author(s) name(s) and the page number or numbers of the quoted/paraphrased passage:
(Verdier et al. 228-230)
If there are no page numbers, like in the example of a website or a journal article in HTML, you would simply only include the author(s) name:
For further help with citation questions and examples, consult some of the guides listed below from other colleges and universities: